· Abacus is cnsidered as the first known counting device and it was orginated from Asia. Abacus worked on a place-value notion meaning that the place of a bead or rock on the apparatus determined how much it was worth.
· In 1642 a French mathematician and philosopher Blaise Pascal invented the first mechanical digital calculator using gears known as the Pascaline.
· In 1812 Charles P. Babbage later known as the “father of the computer”,designed a machine, the difference engine which was steam-powered, fully automatic and commanded by a fixed instruction program.
· In 1947 the giant calculating device ENIAC (Electrical Numerical Integrator and Calculator) machine was developped by John W. Mauchly and J. Presper Eckert, Jr. at the University of Pennsylvania.
· In early 1960s Gene Amdahl designed the IBM System/360 series of mainframe computers, which considered as the first general purpose digital computers which uses intergrated circuits.
· In 1961 Dr. Hopper developed the COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language) programming language.
· In 1964 the International Business Machines (IBM) publishes and marketed the term “word processor
· In 1965 Dr. Thomas Kurtz and Dr. John Kemeny developped BASIC (Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) programming language .
· In 1969 the Internet was started.
· In 1969, computers were first used to communicate synchronously.
· In 1970 Dr. Ted Hoff developed the famous Intel 4004 microprocessor (G) chip.
· In 1971 the Intel released the first microprocessor, a specialized integrated circuit which was able to process four bits of data at a time.
· In 1976 Apple Computers was founded by Steven Jobs and Stephen Wozniak.
· In 1981 the IBM PC was introduced with a 16-bit microprocessor.
milestones and developments in India :
Pre-1902 - Cable telegraph
1902 - First wireless telegraph station established between Sagar Islands and Sandheads.
1907 - First Central Battery of telephones introduced in Kanpur.
1913-1914 - First Automatic Exchange installed in Shimla.
1927 - Radio-telegraph system between the UK and India, with Imperial Wireless Chain beam stations at Khadki and Daund. Inaugurated by Lord Irwinon 23 July by exchanging greetings with King George V.
1933 - Radiotelephone system inaugurated between the UK and India.
953 - 12 channel carrier systemoduced.
1960 - First subscriber trunk dialing route commissioned between Lucknow and Kanpur.
1975 - First PCM system commissioned between Mumbai City and Andheri telephone exchanges.
1976 - First digital microwave junction.
1979 - First optical fibre system for local junction commissioned at Pune.
1980 - First satellite earth station for domestic communications established at Sikandarabad.
1983 - First analog Stored Program Control exchange for trunk lines commissioned at Mumbai.
1984 - C-DOT established for indigenous development and production of digital exchanges.
1995 - First mobile telephone service started on non-commercial basis on 15 August 1995 in Delhi.
1995 - Internet Introduced in India starting with Delhi, Bombay, Calcutta, Chennai and Pune on 15 August 1995
COMPUTER QUIZE :
1. Compiler is the
(a) name given to the computer operator
(b) part of the digital machine to store the information
(c) translator of source program to object
(d) part of arithmetic logic unit
(e) operator of Boolean Algebra
2. Main memory is
(a) Random Access Memory (b) Read only Memory
(c) Serial Access Memory (d) None of these
3. Which of the following is the smallest and fastest computer imitating brain working?
(a) Supercomputer (b) Quantum Computer
(c) Param-10,000 (d) IBM chips
4. A compact disc (CD) is a data storage of the type
(a) Magnetic (b) Optical (c) Electrical (d) Electromechanical
5. Which of the following is not as language for computer programming?
(a) WINDOWS (b) PASCAL (c) BASIC
(d) COBOL (e) All of these
6. What are the two basic types of memory that your computer uses?(
a) RAM (b) RW/RAM (c) ROM (d) ERAM (e) POST
7. The term gigabyte refers to
(a) 1024 bytes (b) 1024 kilobytes (c) 1024 megabytes
(d) 1024 gigabytes (e) None of the above
8. A computer with CPU speed around 100 million instructions per second & with the word length of around 64 bits is known as
(a) Super computer (b) Mini computer (c) Micro computer
(d) Micro computer (e) None of the above
9. What digits are representative of all binary numbers?
(a) 0 (b) 1 (c) Both (a ) and (b) (d) 3 (e) None of the above
10. To locate a data items for storage is
(a) Field (b) Feed (c) Database
(d) Fetch (e) None of the above
11. Off-line operation is the operation of devices without the control of
(a) Memory (b) CPU (c) ALU
(d) Control unit (e) None of the above
12. A type of line printer that uses an embossed steel band to form the letters printed on the paper is
(a) Golf ball printer (b) Dot-matrix printer
(c) Laser printer (d) Band printer (e) None of the above
13. A software used to convert source program instructions to object instruction is known as
(a) Compiler (b) Assembler (c) Interpreter
(d) Language processor (e) None of the above
14. The 'IC' chip, used in computers, is made of
(a) Chromium (b) Iron oxide (c) Silica (d) Silicon
15. Name the first general purpose electronic computer
Ans : UNIVAC
16. The size of commonly used Floppy disk is
(a) 4.5” (b) 3.5” (c) 3.25” (d) 5.5”
17. Which of the following statement is wrong
(a) Windows XP is an operating system
(b) Linux is owned and sold by Microsoft
(c) Photoshop is a graphical design tool by Adobe
(d) Linux is free and open source software
18. Operating system of a computer
(a) Enables the programmer to draw a flow chart
(b) Links a program with subroutine with references
(c) Provides a layer, user friendly interface
(d) None of the above
19. The term ‘Operating System’ means
(a) A set of programs which control computer working
(b) The way a user operates the computer system
(c) Conversion of high level language to machine language
(d) The way computer operator works
20. Wild card operators specifies
(a) can be used when writing into multiple files
(b) allows several files to be read simultaneously
(c) Provide an easy way of groups of related files
(d) Are only used when printing the contents of a file
21.Which one of the following is not a broadband communication medium
(a) Microwave (b) Fibre optic cable
(c) Twisted pair (d) Coaxial cable
22.Which of the following performs modulation and demodulation
(a) Coaxial cable (b) Satellite (c) Modem (d) Optical fibre
23. Which one of the following is not an application software package
(a) Redhat Linux (b) Microsoft Office
(c) Adobe PageMaker (d) Open Office
24. Who is the father of computer
Ans : Charles Babbage
25.The function of key F4 is
Ans : To repeat the last action
26.The function of key F4 is
Ans : To repeat the last action
27. The 0 and 1 in the binary numbering system are called binary digits or .......
(a) bytes (b) kilobytes (c) decimal bytes (d) bits (e) nibbles
28. A monitor's ...... is the distance between the holes in the mask behind the screen. This helps determine how sharp the dots appear.
(a) refresh rate (b) dot pitch (c) resolution
(d) colour depth (e) None of the above
29. A directly accessible appointment calendar is a feature of a ....... resident package.
(a) CPU (b) memory (c) Buffer (d) ALU (e) None of the above
30. Perforated paper used as input or output media is known as
(a) Paper tape (b) Magnetic tape (c) Punched paper tape
(d) Card punch (e) None of the above
31. The invention of the slide rule is attributed to
(a) Babbage (b) Oughtred (c) Pascal
(d) Napier (e) None of the above
32. Which of the following is not an advantage of magnetic disk storage.
(a) The access time of magnetic disk is much less than that of magnetic tape
(b) Disk storage is longer lasting than magnetic tape
(c) Disk storage is less expensive than tape storage
(d) All of the above
(e) None of the above
33. The memory sizes in mainframe computers and advanced technology micro computer are expressed as
(a) Bytes (b) Kilo-bytes (c) Bits
(d) Megabytes (e) None of the above
34. A prefix for billion which is equal to .... is called as billi.
(a) 100 (b) 10000 (c) 1000 (d) 10 (e) None of the above
35. Each model of a computer has a unique
(a) Assembly language (b) Machine language
(c) High level language (d) All of the above
(e) None of the above
36. One kilobyte = ____ byte.
(a) 1250 (b) 2088 (c) 1024 (d) 1000
37. Which of the following circuit is used as a 'Memory device' in computers?
(a) Rectifier (b) Flip-Flop (c) Comparator (d) Attenuator
38. To move the cursor to the end of the document press
Ans : Ctrl + End
39. In Word Processing the red underline indicates
Ans : Spelling mistakes
40. The shortcut key to print documents is
Ans : Ctrl + P
41. First layer in the OSI reference model is
(a) Data link (b) Network (c) Physical (d) Application
42. Viruses, Trojan horses and Worms are
(a) able to harm computer system
(b) unable to detect if affected on computer
(c) user-friendly applications
(d) harmless applications resident on computer
43. Program threats are
(a) Trap doors (b) Trojan horse (c) Both (a) & (b
44. Failure of passwords security due to exposure can result from
(a) Electronic monitoring (b) Visual (c) Both (a) & (b)
45. Data security threats include
(a) Hardware failure (b) Privacy invasion
(c) Fraudulent manipulation of data (d) All of the above
46. The bar which displays information about the current page number is
Ans : Status bar
47. Graphical pictures that represent an object like file, folder etc. are
(a) Task bar (b) Windows (c) Desktop (d) Icons
48. Who invented the super-computer?
(a) P.T Farnsworth (b) J.R Whinfield
(c) J.H. Van Tassell (d) Charles Ginsberg
49. Accessing records from a file directly without searching from the beginning of the file is
(a) Time sharing (b) Random
(c) Direct access (d) Access time (e) None of the above
50. Time during which a job is processed by the computer is
(a) Delay time (b) Real time (c) Execution time
(d) Down time (e) None of the above